I. The Civil Calendar of Noah’s Time.
Genesis 8:4 is a very significant verse, as it gives the exact month and day of Christ’s Resurrection. The Civil Calendar of Noah’s Day was in effect until Israel’s emancipation from Egypt. It is important to note that the first month of the Civil Calendar was October; not as ours today, being January. Years later, in Exodus 12, God would give Israel a new calendar, to be expounded upon later.
“And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.” (Genesis 8:4)
- The fact that the Ark rested about 500 miles from where it left and rested in the exact place God wanted it to is a miracle. Noah didn’t have any oars and couldn’t see any land or mountain tops as the flood waters rose.
“Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.” (Genesis 7:20)
Therefore, the Ark was about 22 ½ feet above the mountains of Ararat and went no further until it settled exactly where God wanted it to in Genesis 8:4.
“And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.” (Genesis 8:4)
2. How did Moses know to record in the Civil Calendar that the Ark (a Type of Christ) would rest on the seventh month of the Civil Calendar, which is April; and the seventeenth day, the exact day Christ would be resurrected? There is no way Moses could pick the seventh month (April) out of 12 months which would not be revealed until many years later. The answer is very simple and easy to understand, and described in God’s Word.
“Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. (v.20) For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:20-21)
God uses the Holy Spirit to put into the minds and direct the writers of God’s Word (the Bible) to record as the Holy Spirit inspires.
“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:” (2 Timothy 3:16)
Moses wrote what he didn’t know; but penned in the manuscripts the mind of God as the Holy Spirit directed and put in his mind to write.
We, as Christians, give the Word of God (not our philosophy) to the lost; in anticipation they will accept it. Paul described this in writing to the Thessalonians.
“For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.” (1 Thess. 2:13)
II. The New Religious Calendar for Israel.
We now go to Exodus, Chapter 12, where God institutes the Passover Feast. He uses the events of the Tenth Plague; such as the blood, death of the first born, and deliverance of Israel from bondage. This also contains minute details concerning the Passover Feast about the month and day it is to be celebrated. It points to the Crucifixion of Christ, which is no longer to be observed, as Christ is the fulfillment of the Passover Feast.
“…For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:” (1 Corinthians 5:7)
The following are the particularities of the Passover in Exodus, Chapter 12:
1. The First Month.
“And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, (v.1) This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.” (Exodus 12:1-2)
It is the first month they came out of Egypt; therefore, the first month of the new religious calendar. This month is ABIB, which is our April.
“This day came ye out in the month Abib.” (Exodus 13:4)
- The Fourteenth Day. – Passover Was Kept.
“In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover.” (Leviticus 23:5)
- The Tenth Day. – The Unblemished Lamb Was Selected.
The unblemished lamb was selected on the tenth day, which was four days before the Passover was celebrated on the fourteenth day. This points to Jesus Christ when He rode into Jerusalem, four days before He was crucified.
“Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:” (Exodus 12:3)
- A Lamb without Blemish.
“Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year:..” (Exodus 12:5)
Christ fulfilled this,.. being perfect and sinless.
“But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:” (1 Peter 1:19)
For he hath made him [Christ] to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.” (2 Corinthians 5:21)
- Exodus 12:6 – Kept Until the Fourteenth Day.
“And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it [put to death] in the evening.” (Exodus 12:6)
This, in type, states that Christ, the Lamb of God will not be crucified until the fourteenth day; that is, four days after Christ entered into Jerusalem. The death by crucifixion would come in the evening. This was fulfilled, as He was crucified on the fourteenth day, on which day the Passover was to be celebrated.
Note: “Put to death in the evening.” One must remember that Matthew, Mark, and Luke use the Jewish time, that being 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. to 6. a.m.; while John uses the Roman time, 12 Noon to 12 Midnight. Therefore, in Jewish time, their day ended at 6:00 p.m. and the new day began at 6:01 p.m.
Now, let us turn to Mark, Chapter 15, as Mark is the only Gospel that gives the complete timeline of the Crucifixion to His death on the Cross.
(a) Mark 15:25. – Third Hour
The “third hour” in Jewish time is reckoned from 6 a.m.; therefore, it was 9 a.m. when Christ was put on the Cross, or “crucified.”
(b) Mark 15:33. – Sixth Hour
The “sixth hour” from 6 a.m. was Noon, Jewish time.
(c) Mark 15:34. – Ninth Hour
“And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.” (Mark 15:37)
The “ninth hour” from 6 a.m., Jewish time, would be within the hour at 3 p.m. This is when Jesus died; that being six hours after being crucified. Now, notice that over 1500 years before Christ was crucified, the Passover lamb was to be killed (die) in the EVENING.
“…the congregation of Israel shall kill it [the lamb representing Christ] in the evening.” (Exodus 12:6)
- Exodus 12:7, and 22. –Blood On the Lintels and Door Posts
Now, let us continue with Verse 7, of Exodus 12.
“And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.” (Exodus 12:7)
“And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason,” (Exodus 12:22)
“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” (John 3:16)
The blood on the upper door and side posts was a type pointing to Christ’s blood that would be shed on Calvary for the sins of the world, as well as Israel. Leviticus 17:11 explains the significance of the blood.
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.” (Leviticus 17:11)
“And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission.” (Hebrews 9:22)
- Exodus 12:8-10.
“And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. (v.8) Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof. (v.9) And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.” (v. 10)
(a) “Eat the flesh in that night” – The slain lamb (Christ) was eaten in the evening. Israel, as well as all Christians, are to feast upon Christ and His Words in order to “…grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever.” (2 Peter 3:18)
(b) “Roast with fire” – Christ endured the fire of God’s wrath on the Cross.
(c) “Unleavened bread” – represents Christ’s sinless life.
(d) “Eat not of it raw” – His life alone without His death and Resurrection was meaningless.
(1) A good life – is reformation.
(2) A death and Resurrection – is regeneration.
(e) “Roast with fire; his head with his legs,” – Anything short of His complete work on Calvary is insufficient.
Ephesians 6:13-15, 17 shows Israel, as well as all Christians, what Christ wants us to do to as we witness to a lost world.
“Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. (v.13) Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness; (v.14) And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace; (v.15) And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God: (v. 17)
(f) “And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning;” – This prophecy was concerning Christ and fulfilled when He was on the Cross and removed before the next day. In John 19:30, Jesus “gave up the ghost” (died) and His body was not to remain on the Cross overnight; thus obeying the Jewish Law of God.
“And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: (v.22) His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.” (Deuteronomy 21:22-23)
In John 19:31 we are told that:
“The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” (John 19:31)
In John 19:38-42, Joseph and Nicodemus took Jesus’ body and prepared it for burial.
“Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. (v.41) There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.” (John 19:41-42)
Christ was not buried in a common cemetery with sinners. His body would not remain overnight fulfilling Exodus 12:10.
“And ye shall let nothing of it [Christ, the Lamb] remain until the morning;"
- Exodus 12:11-13.
“And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD'S passover. (v.11) For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. (v.12) And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.” (Exodus 12:11-13)
After our Savior shed His perfect blood on Calvary, and said “It is finished,” salvation was offered freely to all humanity, Jew or Gentile. How? By Christ’s blood shed on the Cross.
But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off (Gentiles) are made nigh by the blood of Christ. (Ephesians 2:13)
Under the Law, anyone was welcome to celebrate the Passover; but, you had to be identified with Israel by circumcision. This is found in Exodus 12:43-49. Praise the Lord that Christ is now “…the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth." (Romans 10:4)
Exodus 12:11 lets us know that the Israelites were to eat the Passover, dressed and ready to travel to show that,
“…Behold, now is the accepted time: behold, now is the day of Salvation.”
One never knows how long they have before death. Just as, by faith, the Israelites applied the blood to the doorposts and lintels of their homes, have you by faith applied the blood of Calvary’s Cross and trusted Jesus Christ as your payment for sin?
If you have, you will immediately experience 2 Corinthians 5:21,
“For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.” 2 Corinthians 5:21
When believers leave this world for Heaven, they know they will be immediately…
“…absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.” (2 Corinthians 5:8b)
Those who have waited too late and died without accepting Jesus Christ as their Savior will be greeted in death with the most devastating words they have ever heard while living.
“Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:” (Matthew 25:41)
III. Jewish Time Versus the Roman Time.
- The Jewish time – Mark 15:25. The “third hour” is from 6 a.m. (that being 9 a.m.). – (crucified).
“And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.” – (Mark 15:25)
(a). Roman Time – John 19:14-16 – He was before Pilate at 6 a.m. from Roman time at Midnight.
“And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: (6 a.m.) and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! (v.14) But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar. (v.15) Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.” (John 19:14-16)
(c). No contradiction at all!
(d). Chart below contrasting Jewish and Roman Time.
“Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. (v.38) And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, (v.39) And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. (v.40) Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, (v.41) He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.(v.42) He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. (v.43) The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.” (Matthew 27:38-44)
Note: The two thieves did not believe the first three hours on the cross from 9 a.m. until Noon. One went to Hell and the other went with Christ into Paradise.
“And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. (v.39) But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? (v.40) And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. (v.41) And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.(v.42) And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise. (v.43) And it was about the sixth hour,(Noon) and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour (3 p.m.). (v.44) And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. (v.45) And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.” (Luke 23:39-46)
- “Atonement” – Leviticus 17:11.
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.”
- Romans 5:11 is “Reconciliation.”
“And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.”
2 Corinthians 5:18,19.
“And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; (v.18) To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.” (v.19)
The Greek is “KATALLGE.” It is basically defined as:
“An exchange which means a change on the part of one party (a sinner) induced by an action on the part of another (Christ, the Savior).”
(a). The word “atonement” is an Old Testament word that means “a covering.” The word is used in several ways, depending on the context.
(1) It was used on the Ark of Noah, applied inside and outside to keep the waters from penetrating and the occupants safe.
“Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch (Heb. KOPHAR) it within and without with pitch (Heb. KOPHAR).” (Genesis 6:14)
(2) It was used to cover and protect the ark of bulrushes containing the infant, Moses.
“And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, (Heb. KOPHAR) and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink.” (Exodus 2:3)
The word “slime” is a mineral form of pitch. Pitch could be likened to our asphalt today.
(3) The same Hebrew word “KOPHAR” when used in a spiritual sense, concerning the blood is translated properly as “ATONEMENT” meaning a “covering.”
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement (“a covering”) for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement (“a covering”) for the soul.” (Leviticus 17:11)
The blood of an animal that was offered for sin only covered that sin; but, never took it away. That is why no one ever went to Heaven in the Old Testament. They went to Paradise, located in the center of the earth. This is where Christ went upon death, taking the one thief, who was now a believer, with Him.
“And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.” (Luke 23:43)
Right after Jesus was resurrected, Mary Magdalene approached Christ,
“Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.” (John 20:17)
Jesus would not allow a sinful human being even Mary Magdalene, to touch His sinless body. Immediately after Mary departed, Jesus ascended to Heaven to anoint, with His own sinless blood, the heavenly Mercy Seat.
“Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. (v.12) For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:” (Hebrews 9:12-13)
Christ had then immediately returned to earth to show Himself for 40 days that He was alive and well.
“To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God:” (Acts 1:3)
After this, He addressed the Apostles right before His departure back to His heavenly home. (Acts 1:2, 4-8)
“And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.” (Acts 1:9)
The “cloud” was, no doubt, those being taken up out of Paradise to their new residence in the Third Heaven.
- The Present - Heavenly Departures.
Now, every Christian, upon death, goes directly to Heaven.
“For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.” (2 Corinthians 5:1)
“Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord:” (2 Corinthians 5:6)
“We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.” (2 Corinthians 5:8)
“And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.” (2 Timothy 4:18)
“For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. (v.11)
Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, though ye know them, and be established in the present truth.” (2 Peter 1:11-12)
- The Present – Earthly Remaining.
"For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,(v.11) Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; " (Titus 2:11,12)
Why should we live this way? Verses 13-15 continue to explain that we are…
"Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; (v.13) Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. (v.14) These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.” (Titus 2:11-15)
Dr. Max D. Younce, Pastor
Heritage Baptist Bible Church
P.O. Box 573
Walnut Grove, MN 56180